Australian Film Commission
This is archived information from the website of the former Australian Film Commission (AFC), now part of Screen Australia
23 July 2019
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Trade Glossary

ACCDAustralian Coalition of Cultural Diversity. A collection of Australian cultural organisations working together to ensure cultural reservations in trade treaties.
ACP African, Caribbean and Pacific countries. About 70 countries with preferential trading relations with the EC
APEC Asian Pacific Economic Cooperation forum.
ASEAN Association of Southeast Asian Nations. The six ASEAN members of the WTO - Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand - usually speak in the WTO as one group on general issues.
Bilateral AgreementAn agreement between two nations.
Berne Convention Treaty, administered by WIPO, for the protection of the intellectual property rights of authors in their literary and artistic works.
EC European Communities.
EUEuropean Union.
EFTA European Free Trade Association.
Ex ante, ex post Before and after a measure is applied.
FTAFree Trade Agreement.
G15 Group of 15 developing countries acting as the main political organ for the Non-Aligned Movement.
G8 Group of seven leading industrial countries plus Russia.
G77 Group of developing countries set up in 1964 at the end of the first UNCTAD (originally 77, but now more than 130 countries).
GATS General Agreement on Trade in Services.
GATT General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, which has been superseded by the WTO. and
GATT 1947 Refers to the old version of the GATT.
GATT 1994 The new version of the General Agreement, incorporated into the WTO, which governs trade in goods.
General obligations Obligations which should be applied to all services sectors at the entry into force of the agreement.
GRULA Informal group of Latin-American members of the WTO.
ICCDInternational network for Cultural Diversity.
ICCPInternational network on Cultural Policy.
Initial commitments Trade liberalizing commitments in services which members are prepared to make early on.
Intellectual property Ownership of ideas, including literary and artistic works (protected by copyright), inventions (protected by patents), signs for distinguishing goods of an enterprise (protected by trademarks) and other elements of industrial property.
IPRs Intellectual property rights.
LDCs Less-developed countries.
LLDCs Least-developed countries.
Members WTO governments (first letter capitalised).
MFN Most-favoured-nation treatment (Article I of the GATT 1994) requiring countries not to discriminate between goods on the basis of their origin or destination.
Modes of delivery Ways in which services may be rendered. They may include sales through establishment, cross-border sales, and the movement of persons involved in the provision of services.
Modes of delivery How international trade in sorganisationervices is supplied and consumed. Mode 1: cross-border supply; mode 2: consumption abroad; mode 3: foreign commercial presence; and mode 4: movement of natural persons.
Multilateral AgreementAn Agreement between many nations.
MPAMotion Picture Association.
National treatment Obligation under Article III of the GATT 1994 which requires that imports be treated no less favourably than domestically-produced goods once they have passed customs.
NTMs Non-tariff measures such as quotas, import licensing systems, sanitary regulations, prohibitions, etc.
OfferA country's proposal for further liberalization.
Parallel imports: Parallel imports occur when goods produced or sold abroad with the consent of the owner of the applicable intellectual property rights (IPR)-copyright, patent or trademark-are subsequently imported into the domestic market without the consent of the rights owner.
Paris Convention Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property Treaty 1883, administered by WIPO, for the protection of industrial intellectual property, i.e. patents, utility models, industrial designs, etc.
Piracy Unauthorised copying of copyright materials for commercial purposes and unauthorized commercial dealing in copied materials.
Protocols Additional agreements attached to the GATS. The Second Protocol deals with the 1995 commitments on financial services. The Third Protocol deals with movement of natural persons.
Rome Convention Treaty, administered by WIPO, UNESCO and ILO, for the protection of the works of performers, broadcasting organisations and producers of phonograms.
SAFTASingapore Australia Free Trade Agreement.
Schedule "Schedule of Specific Commitments" - A WTO member's list of commitments regarding market access and bindings regarding national treatment.
Standstill AgreementAn agreement allowing for the retention of existing regulatory mechanisms, while forbidding the introduction of new measures, or the alteration of existing ones.
Subsidy There are two general types of subsidies: export and domestic. An export subsidy is a benefit conferred on a firm by the government that is contingent on exports. A domestic subsidy is a benefit not directly linked to exports.
Transparency Degree to which trade policies and practices, and the process by which they are established, are open and predictable.
TRIMS Trade-related investment measures.
TRIPS Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights.
UNUnited Nations
UNESCOUnited Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.
Uruguay Round Multilateral trade negotiations launched at Punta del Este, Uruguay in September 1986 and concluded in Geneva in December 1993. Signed by Ministers in Marrakesh, Morocco in April 1994.
USCIUnited States Coalition of Service Industries.
USTRUnited States Trade Representative.
Waiver Permission granted by WTO members allowing a WTO member not to comply with normal commitments. Waivers have time limits and extensions have to be justified.
Washington Treaty Treaty for the protection of intellectual property in respect of lay-out designs of integrated circuits.
WIPO World Intellectual Property Organization.
WTO On January 1, 1995, the World Trade Organization replaced GATT (See GATT) as a result of the successful Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations. The WTO is an organisation for the discussion, negotiation and resolution of trade issues covering goods, services and intellectual property. Its essential functions are administering and implementing the multilateral and plurilateral trade agreements that constitute it, acting as a forum for multilateral trade negotiations, seeking to resolve trade disputes, overseeing national trade policies and cooperating with other international institutions involved in global economic policy-making.